Get Free Access to Mark Warren's translation of the original Japanese TPS manual here https://duxacademy.duxinaroe.com/courses/tps-handbook-1973
The Dux Introduction (Extract)
... I firmly believe the failure to embed a culture that continuously improves is a 'human factors' issue, more than it is an issue related to the technical understanding of tools and techniques.
We've done a good job of understanding the technicalities ... applying tools and improving performance ... but more often than not, companies do not become 'Lean', that is, they do not manage to replicate the performance standards which have been reported by Toyota and other Japanese companies for the last 40+ years... there is something else going on.
Following >25 years of direct involvement in WCM & Lean initiatives around Europe, I believe the failure to replicate the system in the West comes down to just a few things...